语法点



关于Fulfil与Fulfill的语法知识点

Fulfill is the American spelling of the verb meaning to accomplish or to satisfy.

Fulfil is the preferred spelling outside North America. Both forms are common in Canadian writing.

The spelling preferences extend to ‘fulfilment’ and ‘fulfillment’, but not to ‘fulfilled’, ‘fulfilling’, and ‘fulfiller’, which have two ls everywhere.

Examples:
U.S.
The question is, how do we fulfill that vision? [Wall Street Journal]
But he was forced to battle his insurance company of more than 50 years when it failed to fulfill its $220,000 policy. [Los Angeles Times]
Voters in 2008 would have seen he didn’t measure up then, had not millions been swept away with emotion and wish-fulfillment. [Denver Post]

Outside the U.S.
The Catholic Church is facing many problems, but here we will focus on an inability to fulfil its primary task … [Irish Times]
The book, she admits, has an unexpected touch of wish-fulfilment to it. [Guardian]
There is even a tenant who seems likely to fulfil that most essential of television roles: the character audiences love to hate. [Sydney Morning Herald]



关于May、Might、May Have与Might Have的语法知识点

We use May when we are not sure about something:
Jack may be coming to see us tomorrow.
Oh dear! It’s half past ten. We may be late for the meeting.
There may not be very many people there.

To make polite requests:
May I borrow the car tomorrow?
May we come a bit later?

When we use May Not for a refusal it is emphatic:
You may not!
You may not borrow the car until you can be more careful with it.

We use Might when we are not sure about something:
I might see you tomorrow.
It looks nice, but it might be very expensive.
It’s quite bright. It might not rain today.

As the past tense of May for requests:
He asked if he might borrow the car.
They wanted to know if they might come later.

For very polite requests:
Might I ask you a question?
Might we just interrupt for a moment?

We use May Have and Might Have to show that something has possibly happened now or happened at some time in the past:
It's ten o'clock. They might have arrived now. [Perhaps they have arrived]
They may have arrived hours ago. [Perhaps they arrived hours ago.]

Speaking of a murderer who was apprehended in 1998, a law enforcement officer was quoted as saying:
When all this happened, if I wasn't there, he may have gotten away with it.
As the speaker was there in the past and the murderer did not get away, standard usage calls for this construction:

When all this happened, if I hadn't been there, he might have gotten away with it.
Might is the past tense of May. Ideally, May is the form to use when talking about a current situation, and Might is the form to use in referring to an event from the past. In practice, the two forms are used interchangeably, as demonstrated by these headlines from different web sites:

10 Civilizations That Might Have Beaten Columbus To America
Polynesians may have beaten Columbus to South America.

US-bound passengers may have to switch on mobile phones for security
Cellphone owners might have to undergo extra screening before boarding

Researchers May Have Discovered The Consciousness On/Off Switch
Scientists might have just found the brain’s “off switch”

6 Signs That You Might Be Psychic
Signs You May be Psychic

7 Mistakes You Might Make Before Your Job Interview
5 Money Mistakes Even Good Savers May Make

Fans might have to wait weeks before Dodgers games come to their TVs
Apple Fans May Have to Wait Longer for Larger iPhone

Most of the time, the interchange of ‘may’ and ‘might’ does not present a problem. The Oxford Dictionaries site declares that if the truth of a situation isn’t known at the time of use, then either is acceptable.

The one context in which might is always the better choice is one in which the event mentioned did not in fact occur:
If JFK had not been assassinated, civil rights legislation might have been delayed.
If the English had defeated the Normans at Hastings, we might have inherited fewer spelling problems.



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